Anti and Counter Terrorism
Terrorism – is the lawful use of or threatened use of force or violence against individual or property to coerce intimidates government or societies, often to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives.
II. GENERAL CATEGORIZATION OF TERRORIST
1. Non-State Supported – this terrorist group operates autonomous receiving no significant support from any government.
2. State Supported – a state supported group generally operates independently but receives support from one or more government.
3. State Directed – in this category, the terrorist group operates as an agent to a government. It receives intelligence, logistics and operational support from a government.
III. TERRORIST OBJECTIVE
1. Recognition – at the outset of the terrorist campaign, the objective terrorist acts maybe national or international recognition of the cause. The reason in seeking recognition might also include attracting recruits, obtaining funds, demonstrating strength.
2. Coercion – is the attempt to force a desired behavior of an individual or groups or governments. This objective call for from a strategy of a selective targeting which may rally on publicly announced bombing, destruction of property and other acts which are initially less violent than taking human life.
3. Intimidation – intimidating differs from coercion, intimidating attempt to prevent individuals or group from acting; coercion attempt to force action. Terrorist may use intimidation to reduce the effectiveness of security forces by making them afraid to act. Intimidation can discourage competent citizen from seeking or accept position within a government.
4. Provocation – the specific objective of terrorist acts in this category is to provoke over reaction on the part of the government forces. The strategy normally calls for attacking the targets symbolic of the government. Attacks of this type, demonstrate vulnerability of terrorist acts and contribute to a loss of confidence in the government’s ability to provide security.
5. Insurgency Support – terrorism in support of an insurgency is likely to include provocation, intimidation, coercion and the quest for recognition. Terrorism can also aid an insurgency by causing the government to over extend itself in attempting to protect all possible targets. Other uses of terrorism skill in insurgencies include acquiring funds, coercing recruits, obtaining logistical support and enforcing internal discipline.
IV. TERRORIST TACTICS
1. Assassination – is a euphemism for murder. The term generally applies to the killing of prominent persons and symbolic enemies as well as to defectors from a terrorist group.
2. Arson - has the advantage of low risk to the perpetrators. It requires only a low level of technical knowledge.
3. Bombing – the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) is the contemporary terrorist’s weapon of choice. It is inexpensive to produce and terrorist uses it frequently, due to various detonation techniques available. The IED poses a low risk to the trained terrorist. Other advantages include its attention getting capacity and the terrorist ability to control casualties through time of detonation and placement of device.
4. Hijacking – produces a spectacular hostage situation. Although terrorist hijacking on trains, buses, ships and aircraft offer them greater mobility and worldwide media coverage as a means for escape.
5. Hostage Taking – this is usually an overt seizure of one or more people to gain publicity, concessions or ransom in return for the release of the hostage or hostages.
6. Kidnapping – while similar to hostage taking, kidnapping is usually covert action and the perpetrators may not make themselves know for sometimes. While hostage-taker seek immediate publicity for their terrorist acts, news media attention, kidnapping is usually less intense since the event may extend over a prolonged period because of the time involved. A successful kidnapping requires elaborate planning and logistics, although the risk to the terrorist is less than in a hostage situation.
7. Maiming - creates fear causes pain, but is not as negative terrorist image as killing a hostage.
8. Raids – armed attacks on facilities usually have one or three purposes:
a. Gain access to radio or television broadcast facilities
b. To demonstrate governments inability to guarantee the security of critical facilities
c. Acquire money or materials
9. Seizure – usually involves the capture of the building or object that has a value to the target audience. Publicity is the principal objective. The risk to the terrorist is high because security forces have time to react to the attack. They may opt to use force to resolve the incident since few or no innocent lives may be risked.
10. Sabotage – the sabotage in the most sabotage incident is to demonstrate how vulnerable society is to the terrorist action. In the more developed countries, utilities, communications and transportation systems are so interdependent that a serious disruption of one, affects all and gained immediate public attentions. Sabotage of industrial, commercial or military facilities is one means of showing the vulnerability of the target. While simultaneously making statement or political or monetary demands.
11. Hoaxes – any terrorist group can successfully employ a hoax. A threat against a person’s life and those around him to devote more time and effort to security measures. A bomb threat can close a commercial building, empty or disrupt transportation system at no cost to the terrorist. The long-term effects is “false alarm” on the security force are more dangerous than a temporary disruption of the hoax. Repeated threat that do not materialized, dull the analytical and operational effectiveness of security personnel.
12. Use of Nuclear, Biological, Chemical (NBC) Weapons – although nuclear device is beyond the reach of all but the most sophisticated state sponsored terrorist group, a chemical or biological weapons are not. The technological is simple and the cost per casualty is extremely low. This makes such weapons ideal for those with little or no regard for the consequence of their act.
V. TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
1. Terrorist group is normally cellular.
2. They may organize into multi – functional cell that come several skills into one tactical unit.
3. They may create a separate specialized cell that come together for an operation on an ad – hoc basis.
4. Larger groups normally have a central command and control elements with one or more subordinate elements.
VI. TERRORIST GROUP’S SUPPORT STRUCTURE
1. Leadership - is at the top of the pyramid. It defends policies and direct actions. Leadership is intensely committed and may include charismatic figures. If the group is a state supported or direct, the leadership usually includes one or more members who have been trained by the sponsoring state.
2. Active Supporters – active supporters are people who do not actually commit the violent acts of terrorism. However, they assist the terrorists by providing money, information, legal ends, medical services, safe houses and forged and stolen documents. Active supporters frequently agree ideologically with some or the group’s entire goal, but not the use of violence.
3. Passive Supporters – passive supporters are more difficult to define and identify. Most of them are sympathetic to the terrorist group, but either will not or cannot assume an active role, some passive supporters are involved through intimidation or blackmail. Passive support may be unwitting, for example contributions to charitable cause or causes. The terrorist relies on passive supporters for financial and public displays of support and minor logistics support.
VII. GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
1. All terrorist actions are criminal and intolerable. Thus, whatever their activities they should be condemned.
2. All lawful measures will be taken to prevent terrorist acts and to punish those who commit them.
3. Host government will exercise its responsibility under the international law to protect all persons within its territories.
4. International cooperation to combat terrorism is a fundamental tenet of policy. Treaties concerning aircraft hijacking, measures to protect diplomats and denial of sanctuary to terrorist are included in any international treaties.
VIII. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS IN MEETING TERRORIST THREAT
1. Legal Consideration – terrorist acts are criminal, whether committed in peacetime of war.
2. Principles of National Program – no two nations or societies are exactly alike; therefore, no two national programs for combating terrorism are identical.
3. Policy – a government develop a single consistent policy; the national leadership must express it clearly.
Three (3) Audience of a Statement of Policy Address:
a. The Domestic Population – the terrorist attempts to undermine popular faith in a government ability to protect its citizens.
b. The International Community – views the government policy as Statement of Policy Resolve and Commitment. It evaluates the policy for consistency, with agreements, treaty, commitment, and adherence to national and international law.
c. The Terrorist – are the third audience for national policy. In general, terrorism is – at his time – a low risk operation. Bombings, hijacking and assassinations offer terrorist groups a high probability of success and low risk of capture or death.
4. Organization – a government cannot easily organize and support a new system whose sole mission is combating terrorism, due to the expense and degree of sophistication required, therefore, it usually employs existing organizations.
5. Terrorist Attack – a broad range of targets which fall into many different civil and military jurisdictions.
IX. FUNCTIONS OF A NATIONAL PROGRAM
1. Intelligence - provides the key to both successful Anti-Terrorist (AT) and Counter-Terrorist (CT) Programs. A nation’s ability to recognize, analyze and move against a terrorist threat depends upon the effectiveness of its intelligence apparatus.
2. Security - is the context of a national program to combat terrorism includes both anti-terrorist (AT) and counter-terrorist (CT).
3. Information – in combating terrorism, the government coordinates a variety of policy instruments, both internally and its allies. Informational activities are one of the most important ingredients in a national security strategy.
X. PRINCIPLES OF COMBATING TERRORISM
A well-structured anti-terrorism program is the foundation of any effective combating terrorism effort. The basics of such programs include the collection and dissemination of timely threat information, the conduct of information awareness program and the implementation of sound defensive, measure.
Army Combating Terrorism Program – within the army, combating terrorism is one aspect of force protection. It therefore falls within the staff responsibility of operations officer at all levels.
The Army designed its combating terrorism program to reduce the vulnerability of installations, unit and personnel during peacetime, mobilization and war. The Army’s program concentrates on developing a protective posture in peacetime which can carry over war. The Army’s approach to combating terrorism has two (2) distinct but not separate aspects of anti-terrorism and counter-terrorism.
ANTI-TERRORISM – includes all measures that installation, units and individuals take to reduce the probability of their falling victims to terrorist act.
COUNTER-TERRORISM – includes the full range of offensive measures to prevent, deter and respond to terrorism.